The origins of Pompeii are old as the history of Rome. The Pompeian people came from an ancient Italic population: the Osci. In the second half of 7th century BC, an early village was settled on the site where Pompeii would eventually emerge: it was strategically established at the intersection of three major roads. Pompeii quickly became a crossing point between the North and the South and a main trade and travel hub, but consequently, an aimed prey for its powerful neighbours. Due to the salubrious climate and the agreeable landscape, the city and its surroundings became a pleasant vacation destination for rich Roman people. Among them, there was Cicero himself, who owned a plot of land in Pompeii and actually didn’t dislike spending time in that lovely place. Houses in Pompeii became famous also for their valued and unique decoration, so much so that between 2nd Century BC and 79 AD Pompeii developed its own style which came to be widely imitated, even in Rome.
The ancient cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum thrived near the base of Mount Vesuvius at the Bay of Naples. In the time of the early Roman Empire, twenty-thousand people lived in Pompeii, including merchants, manufacturers, and farmers who exploited the rich soil of the region with numerous vineyards and orchards. None suspected that the black fertile earth was the legacy of earlier eruptions of Mount Vesuvius. Herculaneum, named for the mythic hero Hercules, was a city of ﬁve-thousand and a favourite summer destination for rich and inﬂuential Romans.